What they are and what they are not…
Clarity enhanced diamonds are diamonds that just needed a “makeover”. These are diamonds that are for the most part relatively clean except for a prominent inclusion or two. Think of it as getting a bit of plastic surgery. A “diamond plastic surgeon” starts with a diamond that would have a low clarity… a very low SI2, an I1, or a very high I2 clarity. If the diamond’s inclusion(s) can be made to be less noticeable, then you have a more marketable diamond. Clarity enhanced diamonds are 100% real diamonds and they are not some sort of diamond simulants (like a Cubic Zirconia or Moissanite) or synthetic diamond.
The clarity enhanced diamond started off as a diamond that would have an inclusion(s) which could be easily visible without any magnification… it would not be what could be considered an “eye clean” diamond. By the use of this clarity enhancement process, the diamond has become a diamond which now can be described as “eye clean” because the inclusion(s) are less visible. Clarity enhanced diamonds can be bought for a considerable savings in comparison to a similar non-enhanced diamond.
A bit of history-
Clarity enhancing diamonds is a relatively new process, since early 80s, so it is not too possible that you would find a clarity enhanced diamond in your grandmother’s diamond ring. This process relies on the use of lasers and high tech materials that would not have been available when your grandmother got engaged. The one person who is credited with commercially producing a clarity enhanced diamond is Zvi Yehuda. His company is still involved in improving the clarity of diamonds and they have been working on improving the process over the years.
How is it done?
Clarity enhanced diamonds fall into one of two categories. Both types of clarity enhanced diamonds should be relatively easy for a trained person to spot. Some jewelers might not be able to spot a clarity enhanced diamond but it will definitely be detected if a clarity enhanced diamond is sent to a gemological laboratory for a diamond grading report.
The two processes are as follows-
Process #1- Laser Drilling- This process uses a laser to precisely drill down into a diamond to get access to a diamond inclusion. The inclusion will be dark in color against a bright background. Because of all the white light being returned back up through the diamond, the diamond’s dark inclusion would be very noticeable. Upon reaching the inclusion, the heat from the laser beam will many times will completely vaporize the inclusion. A special cleaning solution (actually boiling acid!) might be needed in order to bleach out the dark inclusion so that after the treatment, it will then be a light colored inclusion against a bright background.
The laser drill holes that are now in the diamond are extremely small and you will need high magnification in order to see them. Because of the reduced contrast between the now lightly colored inclusion and its background, the clarity grade of this clarity enhanced diamond will be improved. The newly clarity enhanced diamond will many times be “eye clean” but its clarity grade (determined under magnification) will not change. The process is considered a permanent treatment and it is possible to have the diamond go through a gem lab and they will issue a diamond grading report for this diamond and note the laser drilling on the report.
Process #2 Fracture Filling- Now this process presents a whole bunch of concerns! It can be difficult to detect, even by people who you would think that they should know what to look for… Normally a purple to orange flash can be seen when the stone is turned and light is reflected off the area that has the fracture filling. Fracture filling clarity enhancement is the same process that is used when you get a crack in your windshield. A liquid is forced into the crack (fracture) and just like magic… it disappears! It really is a dramatic change in appearance of the diamond. The liquid that is used is a glass-like material which has similar optical properties to that of diamond. The fracture that is being filled must reach the surface of the diamond. Some clarity enhanced diamonds could have been laser drilled and then fracture filled.
The biggest problem that this treatment presents is when a fracture filled clarity enhanced diamond comes into a jeweler’s shop for some type of repair work. Heat from a torch (will burn up the fracture filling material), excessive pressure in the wrong place, and the ultrasonic cleaning machines with strong cleaning solutions have the possibility of totally screwing up the stone! If the jeweler knows ahead of time that they will be working on a fracture filled clarity enhanced diamond then these problems can be avoided. Fracture filling is not a permanent treatment.